Combined tomography and epithelial thickness mapping for diagnosis of keratoconus



Scanning Scheimpflug provides information regarding corneal thickness and 2-surface topography while arc-scanned high-frequency ultrasound allows depiction of the epithelial and stromal thickness distributions. Both techniques are useful in detection of keratoconus. Our aim was to develop and test a keratoconus classifier combining information from both methods.


We scanned 111 normal and 30 clinical keratoconus subjects with Artemis-1 and Pentacam data. After selecting one random eye per subject, we performed stepwise linear discriminant analysis on a dataset combining parameters generated by each method to obtain classification models based on each technique alone and in combination.


Discriminant analysis resulted in a 4-variable model (R2 = 0.740) based on Artemis data alone and a 4-variable model (R2 = 0.734) using Pentacam data alone. The combined model (R2 = 0.828) consisted of 3 Artemis- and 4 Pentacam-derived variables. The combined model R value was significantly higher than either model alone (p = 0.031, one-tailed). In cross-validation, Artemis had 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity, Pentacam had 97.3% sensitivity and 98.0% specificity, and the combined model had 97.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity.


Pentacam, Artemis, and combined models were all effective in distinguishing normal from clinical keratoconus subjects. From the standpoint of variance explained by the model (R2 values), the combined model was most effective. Application of the model to early and subclinical keratoconus will ultimately be required to assess the effectiveness of the combined approach.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2017; 27(2): 129 - 134




Ronald H. Silverman, Raksha Urs, Arindam RoyChoudhury, Timothy J. Archer, Marine Gobbe, Dan Z. Reinstein

Article History


Financial support: Supported in part by NIH grant EY019055 and an unrestricted grant to the Department of Ophthalmology of Columbia University from Research to Prevent Blindness.
Conflict of interest: Drs. Silverman and Reinstein have a proprietary interest in the Artemis technology (ArcScan, Inc., Morrison, CO, USA) and are the authors of relevant patents administered by the Cornell Center for Technology Enterprise and Commercialization, Ithaca, NY, USA. The remaining authors have no proprietary or financial interest in the materials presented herein.

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  • Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY - USA
  • F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY - USA
  • Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY - USA
  • London Vision Clinic, London - UK
  • Centre Hospitalier National d’Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, Paris - France

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