Optical coherence tomography in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy



To analyze spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-specific findings in the different stages of vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD).


Thirty-seven patients were prospectively recruited. All the patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), biomicroscopy, and SD-OCT. The examined findings were vitelliform material, neurosensory detachment, intraretinal hyperreflective foci, and the status of external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone, and retinal pigment epithelium. The primary outcome was the stratification of SD-OCT findings in each VMD stage. Secondary outcomes included the description of different characteristics related to intraretinal hyperreflective foci.


Outer retinal layers were preserved almost exclusively in stage 1 (range 70%-100%), whereas their disruption and absence were typical of stages 2 to 4 (83%-100%) and stage 5 (67%-83%), respectively. Vitelliform material was found always in stages 2 and 3, 89% of stage 4, and rarely in stage 5 (33%). Neurosensory detachment was to some extent representative of stages 3 and 4 (80% and 72%, respectively) when compared with the other stages (p<0.001). Hyperreflective foci (16% of all eyes) demonstrated a progressive increase across stages 2 to 4, with slightly reduced figure in stage 5. These foci were located in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers, showed different sizes, and were not associated with a visual acuity reduction (p = 0.64).


A progressive deterioration of the outer retinal layers was noticeable in more advanced stages of VMD. The reduction of vitelliform material from stage 3 to 4 was paralleled by an increased evidence of neurosensory detachment. Although showing different size and location, hyperreflective foci did not correlate with worse BCVA.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2017; 27(2): 201 - 204




Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Pierluigi Iacono, Francesco Romano, Gianluigi Bolognesi, Francesco Fasce, Francesco Bandello

Article History


Financial support: F. Bandello: advisory board member: Allergan, Inc.; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Farmila-Thea; Bayer Schering Pharma; Pfizer, Inc.; Alcon, Inc.; Bausch and Lomb; Genentech, Inc.; Alimera Sciences, Inc.; Thrombogenics, Inc.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has conflict of interest with this submission.

This article is available as full text PDF.

  • If you are a Subscriber, please log in now.

  • Article price: Eur 36,00
  • You will be granted access to the article for 72 hours and you will be able to download any format (PDF or ePUB). The article will be available in your login area under "My PayPerView". You will need to register a new account (unless you already own an account with this journal), and you will be guided through our online shop. Online purchases are paid by Credit Card through PayPal.
  • If you are not a Subscriber you may:
  • Subscribe to this journal
  • Unlimited access to all our archives, 24 hour a day, every day of the week.



  •  Department of Ophthalmology, IRCCS Osepdale San Raffaele, University Vita-Salute, Milan - Italy
  •  IRCCS Fondazione G. B. Bietti per l’Oftalmologia, Rome - Italy

Article usage statistics

The blue line displays unique views in the time frame indicated.
The yellow line displays unique downloads.
Views and downloads are counted only once per session.

No supplementary material is available for this article.