Prediction of the development of late enophthalmos in pure blowout fractures: delayed orbital tissue atrophy plays a major role



To retrospectively evaluate the risk factors for the development of late enophthalmos in pure blowout fractures.


We reviewed 49 cases of pure blowout fractures diagnosed in Ajou University Hospital, South Korea, from January 2005 to June 2015. We assumed that several factors influence the development of late enophthalmos, including bony defect size, volume of displaced soft tissue, number of fracture sites, involvement of floor, soft tissue incarceration through the bony defect, and patient age.


Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with late enophthalmos (group 1) while 28 patients were not (group 2). Soft tissue incarceration, presumably causing the soft tissue injury, was the only factor that increased the risk for late enophthalmos in this study (p = 0.04, odds ratio 4.5). In contrast with previous studies, there were no meaningful correlation between bony defect size or volume of displaced soft tissue and development of late enophthalmos. Number of fracture sites, involvement of floor, and patient age did not increase the risk for late enophthalmos.


We suggest that the delayed orbital tissue atrophy due to soft tissue injury plays a more important role than other hypotheses in the development of late enophthalmos. It is necessary to overcorrect to some extent if there is soft tissue incarceration through the bony defect in the initial computed tomography, and clinicians should warn patients about the development of late enophthalmos despite orbital reconstructive surgery.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2017; 27(1): 104 - 108




Sue Min Kim, Yeon Seong Jeong, Il Jae Lee, Myong Chul Park, Dong Ha Park

Article History


Financial support: No financial support was received for this submission.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has conflict of interest with this submission.

This article is available as full text PDF.

  • If you are a Subscriber, please log in now.

  • Article price: Eur 36,00
  • You will be granted access to the article for 72 hours and you will be able to download any format (PDF or ePUB). The article will be available in your login area under "My PayPerView". You will need to register a new account (unless you already own an account with this journal), and you will be guided through our online shop. Online purchases are paid by Credit Card through PayPal.
  • If you are not a Subscriber you may:
  • Subscribe to this journal
  • Unlimited access to all our archives, 24 hour a day, every day of the week.



  • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ajou University Hospital, Republic of Korea

Article usage statistics

The blue line displays unique views in the time frame indicated.
The yellow line displays unique downloads.
Views and downloads are counted only once per session.

No supplementary material is available for this article.