Normal values for microperimetry with the MAIA microperimeter: sensitivity and fixation analysis in healthy adults and children



To establish normative values of retinal sensitivity and parameters describing the fixation pattern using macular analyzer integrity assessment (MAIA) microperimetry (Centervue, Padova, Italy) in adults and children.


A sample of 237 eyes of 237 healthy subjects aged between 10 and 70 years (mean age 30.63 ± 16.23 years) was evaluated using the MAIA microperimeter. The following parameters provided by the MAIA device were evaluated: average threshold (AT), macular integrity, fixation indexes (P1% and P2%), bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) for 95% and 63% of points, and horizontal (H) and vertical (V) axes of the ellipse of fixation. Differences between different age-related groups were evaluated. Correlation of microperimetric parameters with age was also assessed.


Median retinal sensitivity of the overall sample was 32.90 dB (interquartile range 1.80 dB). Median P1 and P2 values were 98.00% (6.00) and 100.00% (1.00), respectively. Median BCEA for 95% and 63% of points were 2.40°2 (4.50) and 0.30°2 (0.50), respectively. Median H and V were 0.90° (0.80) and 0.90° (0.70), respectively. Age was significantly correlated with the following parameters in subjects from 21 to 70 years of age (p<0.01): AT (rho -0.47), P1 (rho -0.37), BCEA95 (rho 0.43), BCEA63 (rho 0.42), H (rho 0.43), and V (rho 0.40).


Retinal sensitivity in healthy eyes tends to decrease with age as well as the stability of the pattern of fixation. A normative database in terms of retinal sensitivity threshold and fixation performance can be established in this type of eyes.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2017; 27(5): 607 - 613




Ainhoa Molina-Martín, David P. Piñero, Rafael J. Pérez-Cambrodí

Article History


Financial support: No financial support was received for this submission.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has conflict of interest with this submission.

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  •  Optometric Clinic, Lluis Alcanyís Foundation, University of Valencia, Valencia - Spain
  •  Department of Ophthalmology (OFTALMAR), Vithas Medimar International Hospital, Alicante - Spain
  •  Department of Optics, Anatomy and Pharmacology, University of Alicante, Alicante - Spain

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