Statistics of TNO stereotest for the diagnosis of microesotropia in children



To analyze statistically the real effectiveness of TNO stereotest for the diagnosis of microesotropia in young patients in daily practice.


We considered 312 patients whose age ranged from 3 to 18 years (mean age 7.5 years) suspected to be microesotropic. All underwent a full orthoptic and ophthalmologic examination. The TNO stereotest was presented at a distance of 40 cm with the patient wearing red-green glasses. The Paliaga 8-D base-in test was considered the gold standard diagnostic test to detect microesotropia.


The specificity of the TNO stereotest from the collected data was 98%, the sensitivity 94%, the positive predictive value 80%, the negative predictive value 99%, and the likelihood ratio 47.


It is important to use the TNO stereotest in clinical daily practice to detect microesotropia, but considering some bias: the age of the young patients, the difficulties encountered in understanding some figures, and the presence of a stereoscopic status even in microtropic subjects.

Post author correction


Article Subject: Strabismus



Andrea C. Piantanida, Manuela Spera, Roberta Nobili, Giulia Gerosa

Article History


Financial support: No financial support was received for this submission.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has conflict of interest with this submission.

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  • Centro Oculistico Lariano, Cernobbio (Como) - Italy

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